Diseases of the circulatory system remain to be the most frequent causes of death; in 2010 their share in the total (standardized) mortality in Czech Republic was 45.1 % in men and 50.7 % in women. A total of 1.707 million patients were under medical supervision by general practitioners or specialist for hypertension, 773 000 for coronary artery disease (IHD). 83 000 for acute myocardial infarction and 256 000 for cerebrovascular diseases. Thus one in five registered patients is treated for hypertension and one in ten for IHD. A total of 939 000 patients, (12 %), were followed up for obesity (BMI ≥ 30). Myocardial infarction is the leading cause of death and disability of men in productive age.

Hypertension increases the risk of coronary heart disease, stroke, peripheral arterial disease and heart failure. Five independent cross-sectional surveys for cardiovascular risk factors have been conducted in the Czech Republic in last 20 years. There was significant decrease in the prevalence of hypertension in both sexes. Awareness of hypertension increased in both sexes, showing higher rates for females. Hypertension control improved significantly over the period, consistently showing more effective control in women. The significant decrease in population mean BP seems to have contributed to the decrease in total and cardiovascular mortality in the Czech Republic observed in the Czech Republic.
Development of mortality rates for cardiovascular diseases have extremely positive trend since 1990.This is mainly caused by lifestyle changes and significant improvements in health care (new treatment procedures , increased rate interventional procedures , new drugs ) . Since 1 January 2012 the Czech Cardiology Society started to officially adopt the newly created ESC (European Society of Cardiology) Guidelines.

Outpatient care is covered mainly by specialists in internal medicine , cardiology and also GPs have a key role in management of chronically ill patients.
The acute pre-hospital care provides fast response and improves the clinical outcomes .The average response time in Prague is 7.5 minutes and 35.1 % of patients suffering from sudden cardiac arrest manage to return to a normal life.
There are 23 cathlabs in Czech Republic, each performing on average 1000 PCI/year.
There are also 12 cardiocentres that perform over 8000 cardiosurgeries/year, around 90/year are heart transplants. Czech Republic also has a well established rehabilitation care, which is a standard part of treatment for patients with cardiovascular disease and is carried out in specialized institutions.

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